This paper looks at the circulation of modern geographical ideas in Brazil. The focus is on the relationship between geographical source models and the target model of domestic modernization. Three corresponding ‘mechanisms’ provided the translation from one to the other: gradualism, adaptation and essentialism.

Machado, L. O. 1998. Emplacement of Ideas. The development of Geographical Thought in Brazil in the Early 20th Century. Finisterra 33(65): 195-207.